Microbiological, virological, bacteriological, immunological, medical, epidemiological, historical, anecdotal

Month: March, 2014

A 1711 treatise on venereal disease (Part V: Miscellany and Mercury)

With the end of the month of March, we end our series of posts on Dr. John Marten’s 1711 Treatise of the Venereal Disease.

In previous volumes, we’ve gone through as many lengthy, out-of-context quoted passages as anyone can stand. See Part II: Human Anatomy (“These Ova, or Eggs are not only found in the Testicles of Married Women, but also in Virgins, in the same manner as we find them in Pullets which will lay Eggs”);  Part III: Human Behavior (“To see an old Letcher, what more odious, yet what more common? How many Decrepit, Hoary, Wither’d, Bursten-belly’d, Crooked, Deaf, Toothless, Bald, Blear-ey’d, Impotent, Rotten Old Men, shall you see flickering upon the Women in almost every Place?”); and Part IV: Venereal Disease and Treatment (“it happens in Gonorrhæa’s, where the said Glandules receiving a Malign Impression and Inflammation from the Virulent Steems, do either transmit but little or no Mucus, or at least what is very crude, thin and acrimonious”).

Therefore, the lengthy passages in today’s post will be presented in some sort of context!mercury-the-third-part

First, it should be noted that A Treatise of the Venereal Disease is divided into three parts. The first chapter of the third part, between “Of the Return of the Hidden Pox” and “Of Mischiefs by Quacks, &c.” comprises 99 pages about mercury, with a tenuous link to venereal disease or any other elements of the book. Marten has clearly scoured all available medical literature for evidence that mercury is toxic. Here are a couple representative mercury anecdotes.

  • On mercury poisoning:
  • Petrus Apponensis, in his Book de Vener. Cap. 2. relates an unhappy Disaster that befel an Apothecary, who to quench his impatient Thirst in the Night, rashly took hold of a Bottle with Mercury, and upon a Mistake that it was Water, drank a rousing Draught of it, upon which he was found dead next Morning, though the greater part of the Quicksilver run thro’ him by Stool; his Body being dissected, they found his Heart and the Blood around it quite congealed. (p. 628)
  • On precautions against mercury poisoning:
  • To prevent or Remedy the Perniciousness of those Mercurial Effluvia, those Miners hold frequently Gold in their Mouths, whilst at work, which in some measure may relieve them, because holding it there for some time, it is chang’d from its yellow Colour to a whiteness like Silver; but by their constant working and drawing in the Particles at their Breath, it proves but a very insufficient Remedy. (p. 629)
  • On mistakes by the pharmacist:
  • [A] tender young child was order’d this Liniment to kill Lice. Take Mercurius Dulcis, one Dram; Mercurius Vitæ, one Scruple; Pomatum one Ounce; mix. But an unskilful Apothecary making a vile Mistake, put in Sublimate instead of Mercurius Dulcis; upon which the Head became so grievously tumefied and inflam’d, that the poor little Innocent must necessarily have perished, had not a Physician presently fomented it with a strong Lixivium; by the help of which proper Antidote, it soon recover’d indeed, but yet so as to lose all the Hair of its Head. (p. 638)
  • On carnival entertainment:
  • Wierus remarks, that a Juggler having made his Guts slippery with a good quantity of Butter, did Ordinarily, swallow down a great measure of Mercury, and voided it again immediately before the People without any hurt. (p. 679)

One symptom of mercury toxicity is excessive salivation. Some doctors in the 18th century used “salivation” as a treatment in itself, or as a way of purging the body to prepare for a more effective treatment. On page 657, Dr. Marten takes a very strong stance against this, having already pointed out plenty of incidents where people’s teeth or connective tissue are destroyed by excessive mercury ingestion.mercury-salivation-constantine

Some have been  Jaw-fallen on one side by rotting of the Ligament of the Juncture; and withstanding all this, says [a certain Surgeon], if a Patient apprehends danger in being Salivated, the Practitioner shall boldly tell him, it is as safe as a Bit of Bread, or the Food he daily eats.

But rather than I would be salivated (were I under the occasion) after the manner generally practised, I would as Constantine the Emperor said, when he was told, that there was no way to cure him of his Leprosie but by Bathing his Body in the Blood of Infants: Malo semper ægrotare quam tali Remedio Convalescere. I had rather always to be Ill, than by such a Remedy to recover; so say I as to the general method of Salivating.

 * * *

Now, on the lighter side…

On page 764, in one of Marten’s many, many attacks on doctors he deems incompetent (he calls quacks “Rascally Fellows”,  “Renegado Mechanicks”, “Pseudo-Chymical Empyricks”, “paultry deluding Fellows”, “Illiterate and Empirical Pretenders”, deceitful Intruders”, “the Pest of Humankind”, “those Monsters of Men, void of Honor and Honesty”, “deadly Enemies to Nature, and Bloody Hell-hounds”, &c.), we get a little poem in the voice of a French quack, in pidgin English. Though this and other passages about quacks are credited to “Hudibras”, I don’t think it’s from the mock-heroic late-17th-century poem by that name, as there are no search results for the phrase “Me be de Frenshman” or “de Cough, de Tissick”. Was the name “Hudibras” used by other satirists?


Me be de Frenshman, profess Physick,
Me cure de Pock, de Cough, de Tissick,
De Ish, de Gout, de Asch in Bones,
And me Begar can cut your Stones.

Towards the end, the book gets looser and looser, throwing in doggerel like this, satire, and lengthy anecdotes intended as nothing more than jokes. Another poem puts forward the “Diamonds are a girl’s best friend” principle.

Provide whilst young, against you’r Old,
For then you’ll find no Friend but Gold,
For when decay’d, and once grown Poor,
‘Tis “out you nasty common Whore”.

And here’s a Q and A in verse, some “tough love” directed at the young gentleman frantic with rage after being “Clapt” by a mistress or prostitute, which must have been Dr. Marten’s most common type of patient.the-guinea-is-due

Question. Suppose when I’m Drunk,
I pick up a Punk,
She swears she is sound,
Which false soon I found.
And I swear I will give her a Guinea:
Since she did deceive me,
And in such a Plight leave me,
If I on demand,
Pay Guinea in Hand,
D’ye think I should be not a Ninny?

Answer. The Guinea is due,
And just Debt from you;
Your Promise does bind,
And what you did find,
Your Sense might have told you before;
And however you fare,
With your Rotten Ware,
We needs must aver it,
‘Twas due to your Merit,
And you had your agreement and more.

 * * *

Finally, there’s a 2 1/2-page anecdote from Sir Thomas Browne, which simply must be read in its entirety (it’s more legible here, in Browne’s collected letters). The upshot is that he went over to the house of a woman named Belinda who was always seen in fashionable boxes at the theater, and was the object of adoration for countless young rakes and blades. So he barged in, and she and her two flatmates were eating lunch in a state of undress, because the landlady was doing the laundry. This set him to thinking about the deceptiveness of appearances, and the thin veneer of social grace underlied by the stark truths of humanity, and he was morally disenchanted, however briefly, with the very concept of whoring. As would anyone after reading all thousand pages of A Treatise of the Venereal Disease.


So you want to be an industrial glassblower

So, you’re interested in a job as a glassblower. That’s no surprise. For 50 years glassblowing has been a good way for a skilled industrial laborer to earn a comfortable living, and today as we enter the 1920s, demand for these workmen shows no signs of lessening. But what are the risks?

Since there are so many glassblowers around, it’s important for society to properly assess what diseases they are likely to suffer. Frederick L. Hoffman writes, in the 231st Bulletin of the United States Bureau of Labor Statistics (“Mortality from Respiratory Diseases in Dusty Trades”, 17th in the Industrial Accidents and Hygiene Series):

The hygiene of glass blowers with special reference to pulmonary tuberculosis is of exceptional interest as a labor problem in the glass industry. The number of blowers employed proportionate to the total number of wage earners is relatively large, and, from a wage point of view, the employment is of the first order of importance.

From this US government document we can see some statistics on the prevalence of tuberculosis in this population. It’s not so much that they are exposed to the bacteria to a high degree. But continual low-level lung damage by inhaling high-temperature air containing various dusts means that once the bacteria are inevitably inhaled, they have a place to roost. The lung equivalent of abrasions, you might say.


So they have higher mortality rates than men in general of the same age. With regard to tuberculosis in particular, here’s a table compiled by Prudential Insurance researchers.


Carboy blowing? Carboys are huge! It’s hard to contemplate the human lungs being the engines of inflation for one of these. Or thisHand Blown Monumental Demijohn.

Some other recent statistics, from the Chicago Tuberculosis Institute. This table is on page 153 of the July 1915 – June 1916 annual report of the Illinois Chief State Factory Inspector.


So as a glassblower you’re not as likely to fall prey to the dread tubercular bacillus as you would be as a marbleworker or upholsterer, but it’s a concern.

* * *

What about other lung conditions?

This turns out to be controversial. As a person with no medical training, I’d imagine that the risk factors for tuberculosis and emphysema are pretty similar. Inhaling poisons or microscopic things that damage the alveoli (alveoli are tiny air sacs which combine to make up a massive surface area for oxygen to enter the blood). However, the evidence regarding glassblowers suggests that the two diseases are uncorrelated.

In 1904 Prettin and Leibkind of the Stadtkrankenhaus Dresden-Friedrichstadt analyzed 230 glassblowers for an article entitled “Kann durch Glasblasen ein Lungenemphysem erzeugt werden?” JAMA (the Journal of the American Medical Association) deemed this an important finding, a perfect example of the sort of science-based result that supersedes old-fashioned beliefs that were based only on common sense.


* * *

We already know that the southeastern regions of New Jersey are great for making wines and wine-related medicinal concoctions. Meanwhile southwestern New Jersey was a hotbed of glass production, as seen in the history of the large town of Glassboro in Gloucester County. To the northeast are two townships called Waterford and Winslow, both of which are named for large glassworks that existed in the 1860s.

In 2006 Erik Schwartz of the Cherry Hill Courier-Post wrote about the long-gone legacy of glass in areas including Waterford and Winslow townships. And in 1869 Dr. John Snowden sent in some observations about the health of workers at the Waterford and Winslow glassworks, included in the Camden County report (p. 134-136) in the Transactions of the Medical Society of New Jersey. “Phthisis” means tuberculosis.


A very interesting communication on the subject of Phthisis has been received from Dr. John W. Snowden, who had practiced for more than twenty-three years at the seat of two of the largest manufactories of glass in this State — at the Waterford and Winslow glass manufactories, where several hundred hands are employed in the manufacture of glass. Dr. Snowden says that among the glass-blowers themselves Phthisis is not at all frequent; but that many of these operatives suffer from emphysema of the lungs. But that among the batch-makers (those who prepare and mix the materials of which the glass is composed), and also among the pot-makers, who make the pots in which the glass is melted in the furnaces, Phthisis is very common indeed, and that few can follow this branch of the business for many years without being liable to Phthisis.

Dr. Snowden says that many of those men, months after they have been compelled by the progress of the disease to leave off work, expectorate with tuberculous matter small masses of German clay, one of the materials of which the pots are made. This undoubtedly being drawn into the lungs by inspiration, in a state of fine powder, and being insoluble, is deposited in the tissue of the lung, where it serves as a point of irritation around which the tubercle is first deposited.

So now glass-blowers don’t get tuberculosis, but they do get emphysema? I guess it depends on the facility.

There is a lot of clay powder involved in glass-making, that’s for sure. Here are the ads at the top of three straight pages of the August 25, 1917 National Glass Budget.

pittsburg-clay-pot-co highlands-fire-clay-co-st-louis laclede-christy-clay-products

* * *

Really, a lot of risks that apply to other glassworkers do not apply to glassblowers. In terms of health hazards, one of the longest assessments was written in this series of articles for insurance men, highlighting how to avoid physical accidents and the subsequent payouts for broken bones, burns, deafness, that sort of thing. I don’t know exactly what it means by “Live Articles”. Maybe it means “This is the current standard of what we expect”.


Here’s a typical illustration.


The Travelers Insurance agent who wrote “Glass Manufacturing Hazards” for this series agrees that emphysema is not a major problem for glassblowers, despite what one might expect. The men who work with the raw glass ingredients, and the “bottle-breakers” who smash undesirable glass so it can be re-melted, are more at risk for this — as they are for skin irritation, painful abrasions, burns from molten glass, and foot lacerations.

Glass-blowers do sometimes break their teeth when the iron blow-pipe strikes some hard object. They slip on the smooth, worn wooden foot-benches that are often without railings. They drink too much water, causing cramps. They get blisters, which should, but usually aren’t, dealt with by puncturing the blister with a needle threaded with white sewing silk, to provide drainage before the blister bursts. And they get infectious diseases from the shared water cup used to cool down between blows, and more importantly, from the shared mouthpiece on the blow-pipe. This has been the subject of several studies. Studies of syphilis.

* * *

The first link between glass-blowers’ pipes and syphilis I can find is from 1862, when the British Medical Journal relayed a report from France. Apparently in “Giers and Vernasion” (which probably means Rive-de-Gier and Vernaison), transmitting diseases is virtually inevitable because the normal procedure is for three men to collaborate (taking turns in quick succession) on blowing a single piece of glass. Is this the normal method? Anyway, this leads to the men giving each other “the three syphilitic disease of the mouth”.


In a 1904 issue of the Indianapolis Medical and Surgical Monitor, Dr. Nelson D. Brayton of the Indiana Medical College collects a large number of reports under the title “Syphilis, a Non-Venereal Disease”. Along with dozens of other anecdotes of people acquiring the dreaded disease through innocent means, he mentions a 162-person outbreak of syphilis among glass-blowers, along with other professions where people risk disease by putting common instruments in their mouths (assayers, weavers, goldsmiths, train conductors, music teachers).

In his 1906 dissertation at the University of Würzburg, Joseph Kaesbohrer described 290 cases of syphilis in which the first observed chancre (hard sore) was seen in the tonsillar region. These frequently occurred from kissing and from nursing, as well as from medical instruments, shared eating utensils, and tobacco pipes. In a summary in the Medical Review of Reviews, the only occupation listed as a risk factor is glass-blowing. So be cautious. But should you acquire this or other so-called venereal disease from your blow-pipe, don’t fear rumors and innuendo, as Kaesbohrer found that “sexual perversion, which many have assumed to be a frequent cause, is, as a matter of fact, an infrequent cause of tonsillar chancre.”

* * *

Depending on what sort of glass works you find yourself in, the risk factors can be different. Most glass doesn’t have lead in it, but some does, and that’ll be bad if it ends up in your lungs, as seen in this 1920 case from Italy.

Unshielded eyes are at risk for “glass-blowers’ cataract”. One reason why we can’t see long-wavelength “infrared” light is that the lens of the eye absorbs this light instead of letting it through to the retina where we could perceive it. Long-term exposure to this light, which we can sense only as heat radiation, can lead to a forty-year-old having the cataracts of a man of eighty. According to the Illinois Medical Journal, the eminent Dr. de Schweinitz can look at the clouding of a furnace-worker’s eyes and tell if he is right- or left-handed.

Finally, a health consequence of glassblowing that may be the most obvious of all if you know someone who’s spent a couple decades in the job. From The Sanitarian, March 1892:

According to Le Progres Medicale, the Societe de Biologie, of which M. Brown-Sequard is president, received from M. Regnault, of Marseilles, at its session on November 7th, 1891, a communication on a disease which is met with in about one third of the workmen. This condition does not attain complete development until the men have been from ten to fifteen years in the business. They are taken into the glass factories, usually, about fifteen years of age; and at first the young workmen complain of great fatigue and a painful feeling in the cheeks which extends to the ears; later, the cheek becomes gradually weakened, is easily puffed out, and the deformity, of which the cases presented were in an advanced stage, progresses steadily. This deformity is caused principally by the weakness of the buccinator muscle, whereby the cheek becomes swollen and permanently enlarged.

The swelling is limited by the masseter muscle. There is also a special dilation of the duct of Steno, the calibre of which is increased and the orifice enlarged. This duct is filled with air, which may be forced out by pressure on the external surface, when a distinct gassy sound is heard.

In short, after years of glass-blowing, your face may be altered. The buccinator muscle is weakened, the cheeks expand into jowls, and the inner mucous lining “is thrown up into vertical and circular folds, giving it an appearance which has been likened to that of a tobacco-pouch.”

Neither M. Regnault of Marseilles nor Dr. Liaras of Bordeaux, summarized in “The Mouths of Glass-Blowers” in the June 1898 Medical Bulletin, see these altered facial features as a serious problem. But in severe cases, the primary salivary duct (the parotid duct, a.k.a. duct of Stensen, a.k.a. duct of Steno) is forced open by the intense pressure in the mouth, and it becomes dilated, forcing air into the salivary gland. I can’t imagine what that feels like. Maybe not painful, but certainly weird. It sounds like a fun party trick to be able to puff up your salivary glands on command… but when it happens unbidden at work, it’s a problem. The final citation on this subject comes from JAMA of November 23, 1912.


So, the word “Tumor”. This is not “tumor” as in cancer, it’s the form that simply means “swelling”. As in the four elements of inflammation, rubor/calor/dolor/tumor, defined by Celsus in the first century A.D. Air goes into the parotid gland, and then you have “tumor” in the parotid gland. As described here by the surgeon Narath, you may have to quit your job if the “chronically stretched duct and gland” get too bad. But you’ll always have the party trick.

* * *

And one more thing. Yet another German article paraphrased by a English-language journal, in this case the March 1899 Canada Lancet.


“Luxation of the eye”? “Proptosis”? Does that mean… yes, just search for some images. So with your newly enhanced lung power as a glass-blower, just make sure that when you sneeze, really let that sneeze escape. Don’t keep it bottled up, if you value your eyeballs’ position behind their eyelids. And good luck!

A 1711 treatise on venereal disease (Part IV: Venereal Disease and Treatment)

Finally, in the fourth part of our five-part series on Dr. John Marten’s Treatise of the Venereal Disease, it’s time to mention venereal disease itself. But still not really, since there really aren’t many passages about venereal disease that go beyond mere recitations of horrors. Today we’ll sample those recitations of horrors, along with discussion of how best to relieve the miseries of the Poxt and Clapt. And the even greater horrors of practicing medicine in styles other than John Marten’s.

For help with the old-timey words and names (Plaister of Oxycroceum, eh?), check out March 3’s post on vocabulary.

For Dr. Marten’s passages about pregnancy tests, delayed puberty, the eggs in women’s testicles, plastic surgery, parasites, the special properties of Brazilians and Americans, and more, check out March 7’s post on human anatomy.

And to hear about human folly, irony, the virtues of moderation, the doting of old fools, and Womb-fury, see last Wednesday’s post on human behavior.


  • On syphilis complications:
  • And indeed this Distemper, if People value their Lives, admits of no neglect; for against such a cruel Enemy, there should be employ’d all the Force and Artillery of Physick Art can procure, to profligate, ferret out, and extinguish all the Venom in the Vessels, Viscera, and solid Parts, where it has taken up its Abode, that the Parts hurt or corrupted by it, may be purifed and restored, and those that are weakned may be strengthned. And by this means only, that is, by proper Remedies and skilful and timely Management, you’ll be saved from the amazing Variety of Ignominious Deformities; such as the Lame swinging between two Crutches, the faultring snuffling Speech, the Mattery blear Eyes, the down-fallen Nose, the rotten Palate, incurable Deafness, scabby Face, stinking Breath, bloated and unwholesome Look, &c. the bare Thoughts of which is enough to make the stoutest Man (that has the Disease) to tremble, or even as that Old Woman Acco did, who seeing her own Deformity in a Glass, run distracted. (p. 480)
  • On the treatment of testicular cysts:
  • [W]ith repeated Bleedings, the Application of Cataplasms made of Barley-meal and Oxycrate (the Parts affected being likewise kept up by Truss, to prevent the Flux of Humours into the Place), frequent Purgings, with Calomelanos & Confectio Hamech, and also drinking plentifully of Emulsions of the greater Cold Seeds made with Barley-water, and a Decoction of Sarsa and China ordered for his Common-drink, the painful Inflammation plainly vanished, but the Swelling still continued; though without any Pain, and the Bigness was uncertain, being sometimes greater, sometimes less, and easily yielding to the pressure of ones Fingers, so that at length the Judgment of two very skilful Surgeons being taken, and that Swelling being supposed a Hydrocele, or watery Rupture, it was thought fit to open it; but when it was solemnly opened with an Incision-Knife, there came out scarce any Water, and no Matter; also the whole Substance of the Testicle seem’d to have been eaten away, and perished for some time, but the investing Coats were hard and incrassated; so that the Testicle being once opened, look’d like an empty Egg-shell, or rather a Pomegranate-shell, when the Meat or that which was contained in it, was taken out. (p. 555)
  • On acido-corrosive ferment:
  • An acido-corrosive Ferment lying hid in the Genital Parts of the Whore, being more than usually agitated in Coition, passed through the Yard of this Young Man into the Pores of the Prostrates and Seminal Vessels, (by Coition more than usually open’d) and so by its sharpness infected both the Seed and Nutritious Humours, and excited small Humours in those parts. (p. 404)
  • On bacteria:
  • When we come to inspect more narrowly the Matter it self, for tho’ many Authors have writ about it, have been very diffusive and exact, as to its Nature, Signs and Properties, yet few (if any) have given us a safe, secure Praxis as may be relied on for Cure, but whether their Methods may be drawn from the Positions they lay down, as to its Nature, &c. of the Semina morbi, I shall not here stand to enquire, only this, that some will have the Venereal Disease to be nothing else than a certain multitude of Animalcule or inconspicuous little Worms, which yet by the help of a Microscope, may be plainly discovered, as Athanasius Kircher, the Jesuit, is reported to have pronounced concerning the Pestilence. (p. 474)
  • On the variability of symptoms:
  • Eustachius Rudius writes that he has observed a thousand times, that many young Men have on the same Day Copulated with one and the same Whore, and yet not all of them Infected, and those that were Infected not Infected alike; It appearing in one with a Running of the Reins, in another with a Bubo, in a 3rd with Rottenness, in a 4th with Pain in the Head, in a 5th with Falling off of the Hair, and in others with other different preternatural Effects, which doubtless, says he, happens by reason of the various Dispositions of the Bodies, Weakness of the Parts, and varieties of the Humours, for weak Parts do more easily receive Humours than the strong, and strong Bodies often resist them when the weak ones can’t. (p. 314)
  • On ineffective emplasticks and restringents:
  • The same Physician tells us of a Cook by Trade, Aged about forty, Robust, and of a Complexion Melancholly, who two or three Years before, received a Prejudice from a hired Woman, which shew’d itself in a fœtid Gonorrhæa, and was untimely stopt by Emplasticks and Restringents; this Malignant Enemy would ever after, sally out in a green or yellow issue, which having continued about eight or ten Days more or less, would of its own accord withdraw it self again, within its own Bounds, and so cease running until it was provok’d again by Riding, Drinking, or other intemperance in Diet; applying himself to me, says he, I purg’d him smartly three times, and gave him a detergent Extract for ten Days, which cured him. (p. 450)
  • On support garments:
  • The keeping up the Cod with a Bag-truss is admirable, and applying Plaisters that are Comfortable and Strengthening; such as the Plaister ad Herniam malax’d with Oil of Bricks, or a Plaister of Oxycroceum with Oil of Ants, giving Strengthning, Restorative Medicines at the same time inwardly, by which diligent Prosecution a Cure may be accomplish’d. (p. 826)
  • On the pungitive figure of the salts:
  • [It] happens in Gonorrhæa’s, where the said Glandules receiving a Malign Impression and Inflammation from the Virulent Steems, do either transmit but little or no Mucus, or at least what is very crude, thin and acrimonious, whence the Urine, as it passes, must necessarily occasion heat, smarting, and pricking Pains, like Pins and Needles through the Pungitive Figure of the Salts, wherewith the Urine is more than ordinarily loaded. (p. 789)
  • On French quacks:
  • A French Surgeon, who I was once desir’d by an Apothecary to consult with, told me, that in France he had divers time cured very violent Gonorrhæa’s, with only the hard Roes of two red Herrings beat up with Wine, without the assistance or use of any other Remedy; and that it carried off both the Virulency and Running at once; but at his relating it, I could not but smile at the Confidence and Ignorance of the Man, especially when I ask’d him wherein the Effect lay, and what reason he could give, that it should do such Feats, which he could not answer, nor I believe any Body else, because there is nothing at all in it for the purposes he gave it. (p. 408)
  • On the Foreign Quack at the Hand and Urinal:
  • But the other Day comes a young Fellow to me with a Clap, for Cure of which, he said, he applied to the Foreign Quack at the Hand and Urinal in Holborn, who after managing him according to his Skill, and before the Malignity was expell’d, gave him a Pint-Bottle of Turpentine-Drink, and a Powder, for which he took Ten Shillings, and by which, he told him, his Running would be stopt, which indeed was so to a tittle, for it was immediately dislodg’d and thrown upon one of his Testicles, to the creating a very big inflam’d and painful, humoral Tumor; which if it had not been forthwith Remedied, or had been under his Outlandish Direction, would have prov’d sufficently Mischievous and Dangerous. (p. 20)
  • On quacks in general:
  • And as a Learned Physician says, so we find, that most of the Errors that are rife among the People at this Day, are upheld by the Runnagate, Male-pert, Bragging Quack-salvers and Empyricks, with which this Nation abounds, who not having Patience to keep to their honest Trades at Home, do wander Abroad with foolish Receipts, claiming Kindred or some other Relations to some eminent Physician, thereby Cheating the over credulous People both of their Money and Health. (p. 611)
  • On non-physician practitioners:
  • I know at this time a Cobler, who marrying a poor Sea Surgeon’s Widow, has laid down his Last, and turn’d Doctor, by vertue of a Book of Receipts she had that was her Husbands, and much values; this Woman being an inspir’d Doctress, by her two Years Bedding with her Husband, tho he was half that time at Sea, has so sufficiently qualify’d her, and she her new Husband, that they propose to do great feats, I mean at killing, for I am sure they cannot at Curing. (p. 723)
  • On ads for quacks:
  • Others there are, that stand to watch People’s Waters, and only Adorn Pissing Places (to make them think of the Business in Hand), Posts and Doors, corner Houses, Thorow fairs, &c. with their deluding Quack Impertinencies, one of which presents you with a fallible Story of three Infallible Cures in Fenchurchstreet. (p. 730)
  • On failure to adhere to a treatment regimen:
  • A Man came to me sometime since to be cured of a Clap, and told me, that he had also given it his Wife, desiring my Assistance for her too; He got well pretty quickly, but she slowly, by reason of other Indispositions. After he was well, he could not keep from his Wife, and so got it again; after that she began to mend and got well; no sooner was it so but her Husband gave it her again, and she him again, so that they Clapt one another imprudently three or four times over; at length they both found, as I had often told them, there would be no end of it at that rate, and resolv’d to be separated for a while; she went into the Country, and he having continual Business in Town, so that he could not go to her, staid here, by which means, with proper Medicines, they at last were both happily cured, and remain so, tho’ a good while since perform’d. (p. 459)

L0005395 Punch, 1866: "At the Turkish Bath"

A 1711 treatise on venereal disease (Part III: Human Behavior)

Back once again with the runnagate malepert! Welcome to the third in our five-part series on Dr. John Marten’s Treatise of the Venereal Disease. Today, we’ll go through some of Dr. Marten’s best insights and anecdotes about how people behave.

For help with the old-timey words and names (Who’s Rondeletius, the expert on making women very delectable?), check out Monday’s post on vocabulary.

For Dr. Marten’s passages about pregnancy tests, delayed puberty, the eggs in women’s testicles, plastic surgery, parasites, the special properties of Brazilians and Americans, and more, check out Friday’s post on human anatomy.


  • On the folly of old age:
  • To see an old Fool dote more than he ever did in his Youth, what more absurd, what more unnatural? To see an old Letcher, what more odious, yet what more common? How many Decrepit, Hoary, Wither’d, Bursten-belly’d, Crooked, Deaf, Toothless, Bald, Blear-ey’d, Impotent, Rotten Old Men, shall you see flickering upon the Women in almost every Place? One gets him a young Wife, another a Mistress, when he can scarce left his Leg over a Sill, and has one Foot already in Charon‘s Boat; when he has the Trembling in his Joints, the Gout in his Feet, a perpetual Rheum in his Head, rotten in his Lungs, whose Sight fails, Hearing is lost, Breath stinks, his Moisture dried up, a very Child again, not able to spit, dress himself, or cut his own Meat, yet he will be dreaming of a Wife, or honing after Wenches. (p. 205)
  • On the folly of youth:
  • And we generally observe the time of Extravagancy in young People, to be between the Fourteenth and Twenty fifth Years of their Age, when who but they? They running into all manner of Riot and Excess, hating Reproof and Admonition, like Solomon‘s Brute, thinking their own Wit best; when their Head-strong Courses, inordinate Drinking, extravagant Gormandizing, sitting up late a Nights, Masturbation, Whoring, and other prodigal Ways, subvert their Healths, extinguish their Natural Heat, Corrupt their Blood and Humours, till they have brought themselves into declining Conditions, which when they once perceive, would fain have amended, When alas! it is too late. (p. 855)
  • On the folly of mismatched ages:
  • This brings to my Mind the Fable of Abstemius, of an old Fellow and a young Wench, which shews in a very lively manner, the Folly of unequal Marriages. There was a formal Piece of Gravity, says he, that liv’d to about Threescore Years and Ten without ever knowing a Woman from a Weather Cock. The Devil ow’d him a Shame, and paid him both Interest and Principal, in making the old doting Fop marry a young Girl. He would be often complaining afterwards how unluckily he had disposed of his Time. When I was a young Man, says he, I wanted a Wife, and now I’m an old Man, my Wife wants a Husband. The Reflexion of which is this: There’s nothing Good, or Natural, that’s out of Season. (p. 844)
  • On ingratitude:
  • I once knew a Gentleman that kept a Mistress, who he had long repos’d Confidence in, and believed to be Honest to him, for which he Articled to Pay her a handsome Yearly Pension, as long as she continued so; he was one that lov’d his Bottle, but always true to her, Drunk or Sober; she, notwithstanding his Kindness and Fidelity, Whore-like, lay with others, till she got a Clap, which she gave to this Gentleman, though it was before she perceiv’d it her self, upon this he with-held her Allowance, and left her; She sues him, he took my Advice what to do, which was that he would Compound it with her as well as he could, take a Release, and never after have more to do with her, which he did, for though she certainly Clapt him, he could not prove it, and if he could, it would not be to his Credit. (p. 864)
  • On misplaced blame:
  • Some strong young Sports-men of good Constitutions, have brush’d through such Misfortunes, and have after it begotten Children, but with a great Diminution of the Venereal Pleasures and Delights to what they were before; the Organs subservient to those Exercises having been shak’d and batter’d in their unclean Combats, &c. but in most Men it has totally destroy’d Prolification, a Curse half tanti to Castration; so that I have often pittied poor, innocent, young, new-married, Gentlewomen, who have Sweated and Stewed themselves in hot Baths, Season after Season. These unhappy Women, I say, thinking that the Deficiency lay on their side, were willing to undertake any Toil or Trouble in Hopes of a great Belly, &c. when alass! the Fault, says he, was in the vile and wicked Whore-masterly Husband, broke and bankrupt in his Bed-tackle; and this is the reason of so many unhappy and miserable Marriages; for Venus rara, cum re angustia domi, &c. makes Women ramble in quest of those Satisfactions, which both Art and Nature in a warm Constitution incessantly prompts ’em to; and the Husband quietly acquiesce under the Brow-Antlers of a display’d Forehead, or to Pocket his Misfortune, being Conscious that his Wife’s Extravagancies, are the Issues of his own Insufficiencies, &c. procur’d by his own Follies, &c. (p. 871)
  • On the law of niddah:
  • We all know that the Jews strictly avoid Copulation with their Wives during their Menstruous Impurity; nay, even avoid lying in the same Bed, sitting upon the same Stool or Chair, or being in their Company, which if Christians would observe, I mean only as to Copulation, would not be amiss; for by that their good Observances, vitiated and defiled Conceptions are prevented, which oftentimes fix Diseases in the Principles of the Birth, and as some say, is more the Cause of Small-Pox and Meazles than any thing else, by the Menstruous Impurities of the Mother’s Blood, which the Infant contracts in the Nutriment of the Womb. (p. 310)
  • On aphrodisiacs:
  • Rondeletius says, if you would render a Woman very delectable, take Euphorbium, Pyrethrum, Cubebs and Pepper, of each a like quantity, powder and incorporate them, and when, says he, you would lie with your Wife in order for a great Belly, anoint your Yard with it, and do the work. (p. 92)
  • On ruination:
  • To see a Fool that has kept his Coach and Six, reduced to trudge about in a Thread-bare Coat, cobled Shoes, and a Piss-burnt Wig, for an Age together, and carry Letters for a Pot of Ale, for being a Bubble to a Jilt, who never was true to him or would give him one Penny to keep him from Starving. (p. 865)
  • On frustration:
  • Concerning a Wound or Laceration of the Yard Dr. Collins gives us a remarkable Instance of a Gentleman, who being Inflam’d with amorous Desires, courted his Mistress in order to Fruition, and paid dear for his Sport, as having his unchaste Flame quench’d before it was rais’d to a height; by reason his unkind Mistress gave a speedy Check to his Amours in putting by his Thrust, by taking his drawn Weapon into her Hand, whereby the Weapon, and not her Hand, was wounded. (p. 65)
  • On Womb-fury:
  • I well remember, I was once desired to see her when one of her Fits of Womb-fury were upon her, at which time she talk’d very extravagantly indeed, calling upon this and that Man she knew, to come and lie with her, throwing off the Bed-cloaths every Minute, to expose her Nakedness, and used such Gestures as to convince every one what a grievous Disease it is; and yet when sensible, she was a modest, chaste Woman, as all that knew her could testify. (p. 234)
  • On coyness:
  • The Allured Gentleman, fired at her Coiness, thinking her Modesty the greater, and that by her Countenance and Carriage she could not be but clean, makes better Terms to her than before she had agreed to, and upon that gains her Consent; but she proved a Fire-ship to him, and infected him to the purpose; but what was worse, he putting Confidence in the Slut, before he perceiv’d any thing ail’d him, he gave the Distemper to his Wife. (p. 352)
  • On hypochondria:
  • A Melancholly single Man, about Forty-four Years of Age, by Trade a Weaver, who being of a highly Scorbutick Habit, and having greatly weakned his Spermatick Vessels and Loins, by too frequent Masturbation, (he having never in his Life so much as toucht a Woman, or knows what  Woman is, as by his relation and Case I verily believe) is very often subject to Nocturnal Pollutions, likewise much afflicted with Pains his Back, Limbs, Joints, Forehead, Throat, and Nose, which latter he will not for my Life be perswaded to believe, but will fall, for that he is sure he says, his Illness is now turned to the Pox, the thoughts of which, especially when he feels but the least tingling on his Nose, so extreamly terrifies him, as to make him sweat and tremble with fear, that really sometimes I have been afraid of his laying violent Hands upon himself. (p. 561)
  • On asceticism:
  • And then mixing Milk with a little Oatmeal, made a sort of Milk-pottage, on which only he lived for a whole Season; he avoided the Sight of all Women, but such as had Anti-venereal Faces for Age and Ugliness; as also all manner of Wine and Strong Drinks, and Flesh-Meats, and by this and such like means, he was perfectly recover’d to his pristine Health. (p. 851)
  • On moderation:
  • And indeed, as he wisely says, the less Men Drink, nay and Eat too, the better Health they enjoy; for this reason I chuse this Day (being the Lord-Mayor’s Festival) rather to stay at Home, and content my self with an innocent, plain, but well-dress’d Dinner, accompanied with a Glass, two or three of generous Wine, and this with a calm and quiet Mind, and home Brewed wholesome Drink, than to gorge among a great deal of Noise and Nonsence, with my Associates, those surfeiting Dainties, prepar’d for the Day; for by temperate, and regular Eating and Drinking, as says the afore-said Doctor, a Man is brisker and more lively than the Sot and Glutton, and lives twice or thrice their Ages; for their Organs are less used, and consequently less worn; they breed less Spirits, less Blood; the Veins and Arteries are not so full and crowded; the Circulations not so swift and frequent; the Bowels not so thin, and the Mucus not wash’d off, which is not only a Lining and defence to the Stomach and Bowels, but to the Veins and Arteries also, to keep their Coats from wearing in too quick and frequent Circulations, which in unnecessary and Thirstless Epotations, especially of strong and spirituous Liquors, that unthinking Animal, the Drunkard, puts the fatigu’d Troops of his own Houshold (Sots-Hall) too often upon; till they ravage and lay waste that Carkass, in a few months, which might have serv’d an honest and sober Soul to have liv’d comfortably in, a hundred Years. (p. 570)

Coming next Monday: Part IV: Venereal Disease and Treatment